INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY permeates our society and our entire educational system. More than just a series of courses, information technology is an information-gathering, information-organizing, and problem-solving tool that supports every discipline. To help students during their school years as well as during their employment, business education must offer continuous instruction in current and emerging information technology. And all teachers-elementary, middle school, high school, and postsecondary-must:
- Coordinate information technology curricula not only in business education but also across the entire curriculum
- Realize that knowledge and mastery of specific hardware or software skills are not the end-goals of information technology courses
- Understand that it is the student's ability to analyze, synthesize, and evaluate situations at home, school, or work, and then apply technology to solve problems and complete tasks efficiently and effectively, that is of lasting value
Information technologies are useful no matter what form they take-electronic, electromechanical, or manual. The increased use of electronic information technologies has created added concern about issues of intellectual property, privacy, and security. The information technology standards described in this document are primarily electronic in nature; however, many of these standards can also refer to paper-based information technology.
Below is an overview of the achievement standards for the information technology content area. Each achievement standard states the understanding and competency students should attain. Each achievement standard has corresponding performance expectations. Each performance expectation delineates what students need to do to exhibit the knowledge and the skills required to meet the achievement standard. The corresponding performance expectations for each achievement standard are detailed in the publication.
I. Impact on Society
Achievement Standard: Assess the impact of information technology on society.
II. Computer Architecture
Achievement Standard: Describe current and emerging computer architecture; configure, install, and upgrade hardware; diagnose and repair hardware problems.
III. Operating Systems, Environments, and Utilities
Achievement Standard: Identify, evaluate, select, install, use, upgrade, customize, and diagnose and solve problems with various types of operating systems, environments, and utilities.
IV. Information Technology and Major Business Functions
Achievement Standard: Describe the information technology components of major business functions and explain their interrelationships.
V. Application Software
Achievement Standard: Identify, evaluate, select, install, use, upgrade, and customize application software; diagnose and solve problems resulting from an application software's installation and use.
VI. Input Technologies
Achievement Standard: Use input technologies appropriately to enter and manipulate text and data.
VII. Information Retrieval
Achievement Standard: Gather, evaluate, use, and cite information from information technology sources.
VIII. Database Management Systems
Achievement Standard: Use, plan, develop, and maintain database management systems.
IX. Programming and Application Development
Achievement Standard: Design, develop, test, and implement programs.
X. Systems Analysis and Design
Achievement Standard: Analyze and design information systems using appropriate development tools.
XI. Communications and Networking Infrastructures
Achievement Standard: Develop the skills to design, deploy, and administer networks and communications systems.
XII. Network Applications
Achievement Standard: Use, evaluate, and deploy communications and networking applications.
XII. Information Technology Planning and Acquisition
Achievement Standard: Plan the selection and acquisition of information technologies.
XIV. Technical Support and Training
Achievement Standard: Develop the technical and interpersonal skills and knowledge to support the user community.
XV. Risk Management
Achievement Standard: Design and implement risk management policies and procedures for information technology.
XVI. Privacy and Ethics
Achievement Standard: Describe, analyze, develop, and follow policies for managing privacy and ethical issues in organizations and in a technology-based society.
XVII. Information Technology Careers
Achievement Standard: Describe positions and career paths in information technology.
From the National Standards for Business Education © 2001 by the National Business Education Association, 1914 Association Drive, Reston, VA 20191.